Actions of Plasmalogens
A research team chaired by Takehiko Fujino, Emeritus Professor of Kyushu University in Japan has ascertained that plasmalogens are the key to the improvement of dementia.
Neurogenesis (birth of nerve cells) in brain
The research team achieved unprecedented discovery of the action of neurogenesis by plasmalogens. Administration of plasmalogens to mice with brain inflammation has provided evidence leading to the findings of plasmalogen inducing the production of new nerve cells in the hippocampus of the brain (an area which governs memory). The research proposed that neurogenesis would be the new treatment for dementia, making and it unnecessary to improve cells damaged by amyloid β proteins.
Sandrine Thuret, a neural stem cell researcher, proposed that adult brains can grow new nerve cells (neurogenesis). She also offered research and practical advice on how we can help our brains in this process.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic:
Plasmalogens were suggested to have anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects, this indicates a probable therapeutic application of plasmalogens against Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroinflammation involves an activation of glial cells as the cause / effect of Alzheimer’s disease. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused an increase in the number of microglia displaying neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of adult mouse. These LPS-activated glial cells were significantly attenuated by the treatment of plasmalogens. Moreover, LPS-activated accumulation of amyloid β proteins in the neurons of hippocampus was also eradicated by the plasmalogen treatment (Katafuchi T et al., 2012).
LPS activated microglia and simultaneous application of plasmalogenssuppressed these microglia in the hippocampus of mouse. (A) LPS treatment increased the number of microglia which were shown in green (b) and these microglia were suppressed by simultaneous application of plasmalogens (c). The control group was given saline as shown in (a). Scale bar, 100 µm. (B) Graphical representation of LPS activated increase in the number of microglia and plasmalogens suppressed these microglia.
LPS-activated accumulation of the amyloid β proteins while simultaneous application of plasmalogens suppressed these proteins in the hippocampus of mouse. Neurons were stained with NeuN which is shown in red (a – c). Control group treated with saline showed a slight fluorescent of amyloid β immunoreactivity (green) (d). LPS treatment increased the accumulation of amyloid β proteins (e) and these proteins were completely eradicated by plasmalogen treatment (f). Amyloid β and NeuN fluorescences were merged to show an intracellular location of amyloid β in the neurons (g and h) (Katafuchi et al., 2012).
Anti-apoptotic action (protection against cell death) in brain
Neuronal cells are susceptible to stress and this can lead to cell apoptosis and neurodegenerative disorders.
Plasmalogens were found to effectively inhibit neuronal cell death in mouse induced by nutrient deprivation, suggesting anti-apoptotic action of plasmalogens in brain. Thus, this leads to the hypothesis that decreased plasmalogen levels in the brain of Alzheimer’s sufferer could be one of the factors for neuronal loss and future therapeutics preventing neuronal cell death could potentially cure Alzheimer’s disease (Hossain MS et al., 2013).
Plasmalogens inhibit hippocampal neuronal cell death in mouse. Number of survived neuronal cells decreased to about 50% when cultured in nutrient-deprived medium. (A) These nutrient-deprived neuronal cells were then treated with plasmlogens (from chicken skin) at 5 µg/ml for 72 hours. Survival rate significantly increased in these neurons cells treated with plasmalogens compared with nutrient-deprived control neuronal cells. These neuronal cells were stained with Dil (red colour). Scale bar, 50 μm. (B) The bars show the number of primary hippocampal neuronal cells in the specific area of 12 randomly selected locations from each cell culture dish. The data represents average ± SD from four independent experiments with significant differences between control and plasmalogen-treated groups (Bonferroni’s test, P < 0.001) (Hossain MS et al., 2013).
Improvement in learning and memory function
Plasmalogens improve learning and memory function. In the Morris water maze experiment, plasmalogens were given to healthy mice for 6 weeks and the time taken for each to reach a transparent stage hidden 1 cm below the surface of water in a pool was measured. This was the world’s first animal testing conducted to demonstrate the scientific correlation between plasmalogen and dementia. Memory of the mice given plasmalogens improved dramatically compared with the mice from the control group. Mice administered plasmalogens were able to reach the transparent stage in 10.43 seconds, while mice without any administration of plasmalogens took 30.10 seconds to complete the task. This result demonstrated the enhancing effect on learning and memory functions with the intake of plasmalogens.